There are two basic diagnosis - gingivitis, or infection of the gums, and periodontitis, when the deeper structures are endangered.
Gingivitis is the first stage of gum infection and is completely curable. The first noticeable symptom is swollen, painful and red gums, alongside with bleeding during brushing your teeth. At this stage, the disease has not yet come to a phase in which the bone and soft tissue are endangered, so the possibility of complete healing is nearly one hundred percent. However, if the disease is not treated in time, the infection spreads and reaches the second stage which is called periodontitis or periodontal disease. It is the chronic infection of the gums and teeth supporting bone structure, that eventually leads to a complete loss of teeth.
Gingivitis is treated with detailed, thorough oral hygiene and dental treatment combined. The procedure involves the removal of plaque and calculus layers above the gums. Proper brushing and the use of all standard means of personal oral hygiene can fully remove the soft part of the plaque. The dentist then performs professional cleaning and removal of hard deposits of plaque and dental calculus.
Periodontitis or periodontal disease is a long term process of deterioration and withdrawal of the gums, almost imperceptible in the earlier stage of the disease. The first problems can start in the early twenties. The common and incorrect opinion is that periodontal disease is incurable, and that those that suffer from it will inevitably lose all their teeth. As with many dental diseases, a good oral hygiene and regular dental examinations can stop and prevent further deterioration and provide a lifetime duration of your teeth. Early initiation of periodontal therapy is usually a guarantee for keeping your natural teeth, even if you are in a group that consists of 30% to 40% of the population genetically predisposed to this disease.